"[22] She added, "A report that the 300 men who accompanied Henry Morgan to Portobello in 1668 returned to the town with a prize to spend of at least £60 each (two or three times the usual annual plantation wage) leaves little doubt that they were right.”[22], The forced trade became almost a way of life in Port Royal. They were allowed a few days to leave the island. Jamaica, in particular, set the pace for the region in its demands for economic development from British colonial rule. George William Gordon, a Jamaican businessman and politician, who had been critical of Governor John Eyre and his policies, was later arrested by Governor John Eyre who believed he had been behind the rebellion. pp. These Maroons united with a group of Madagascars who had survived the shipwreck of a slave ship and formed their own maroon community in St. George's parish. Notably, in 1690 a revolt at Sutton's plantation, Clarendon of 400 slaves considerably strengthened the Leeward Maroons. After the duke's death in 1688, the planters, who had fled Jamaica to London, succeeded in lobbying James II to order a return to the pre-Albemarle political arrangement and the revolution that brought William III and Mary to the throne in 1689 confirmed the local control of Jamaican planters belonging to the Assembly. Michael Burke, "Norman Manley as premier". The rise of nationalism, as distinct from island identification or desire for self-determination, is generally dated to the 1938 labour riots that took place in Jamaica and the islands of the Eastern Caribbean. It also embodied the island's principles of ministerial responsibility and the rule of law. Alexander Bedward was a Revivalist preacher who espoused the concept of pan-Africanism. "The Jamaican Slave Rebellion of 1831". Garvey also promoted the Back-to-Africa movement, which called for those of African descent to return to the homelands of their ancestors. Because conditions were extremely harsh under the slave regime and the mortality rate for slaves was high, the slave population expanded through the slave trade from West Africa rather than by natural increase. The Spanish also came without women and as of such, often the Taino women were raped by the settlers. Other members began withdrawing soon after. The voter turnout was 72.9%.[111]. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. In 1938, the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union gathered support, while Norman Manley formed the People's National Party, which initially also included his cousin, union leader Alexander Bustamante. The police put down the strike with force, resulting in the deaths of several strikers, while a number of policemen were injured. [43], Following the peace treaties of 1739–1740, virgin land was opened up to settlement, and Jamaica's economy flourished in the period of peace that followed. He was also a visionary nationalist who became the driving force behind the Crown colony's quest for independence. In the 1930’s, politics in Jamaica was born. In fact during the apprenticeship period (1834-1838) and in 1839, a number of persons of African descent came to Jamaica as free labourers. Jamaica, in particular, set the pace for the region in its demands for economic development from British colonial rule. Approximately five hundred slaves were killed in total: 207 during the revolt and somewhere in the range between 310 and 340 slaves were killed through "various forms of judicial executions" after the rebellion was concluded, at times, for quite minor offences (one recorded execution indicates the crime being the theft of a pig; another, a cow). "The Jamaica Prosecutions. [22], While the merchants most certainly had the upper hand, the privateers were an integral part of the operation. The British parliament made a study of prospects for Chinese migration to the West Indies in 1811, and in 1843 made an attempt to recruit Chinese workers to come to Jamaica, British Guiana and Trinidad and Tobago, but nothing came of it. Unable to find gold and other precious metals on Jamaica, the Spanish saw little use for the island and hardly resisted the invasion of British soldiers in 1655. In the mid-17th century, sugarcane had been brought into the British West Indies by the Dutch, from Brazil. Thirty-one percent of the population participated in the 1944 elections. However, despite increased numbers, the British colonial authorities were unable to defeat the Windward Maroons.[40]. But Jamaica gain independent in 1962. In the last quarter of the century, however, the Jamaican sugar economy declined as famines, hurricanes, colonial wars, and wars of independence disrupted trade. Agricultural development was the centrepiece of restored British rule in Jamaica. In addition to Jamaica, Spain also controlled many other islands in the same area, which they called the British West Indies. The planters often found themselves in conflict with Richard Hill, the mixed-race Head of the Department of the Stipendiary Magistrates, over their mistreatment of the apprentices. Tacky and 25 or so men decided to fight on. But the colonial government was relocated to Spanish Town, which had been the capital under Spanish rule. The first Carribean islands to be settled by the British were St Kitts (1623/4) in the north-east and Barbados (1627) in the south-east corner of the Caribbean Basin. Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p. 430. [113] The abolition of the slave trade was followed by the abolition of slavery in 1834 and full emancipation within four years. By the 1820s, Me-no-Sen-You-no-Come housed between 50-60 runaways. Their first bid at stirring interest to the island was to offer attractive land grants to British citizens. When the militia learned of the Obeahman's boast of not being able to be killed, an Obeahman was captured, killed and hung with his mask, ornaments of teeth and bone and feather trimmings at a prominent place visible from the encampment of rebels. Some of them went to Cuba, but others secretly went to the northside of Jamaica. The second governor, Lord Windsor, brought with him in 1662 a proclamation from the king giving Jamaica's non-slave populace the rights of English citizens, including the right to make their own laws. [58] In the early nineteenth century, colonial records describe hundreds of runaway slaves escaping to "Healthshire" where they flourished for several years before they were captured by a party of Maroons. It began as a nationalist movement supported by the mixed-race middle class and the liberal sector of the business community; its leaders were highly educated members of the upper middle class. Governor John Eyre sent government troops, under Brigadier-General Alexander Nelson,[76] to hunt down the poorly armed rebels and bring Paul Bogle back to Morant Bay for trial. As with sugar, the presence of American companies, like the well-known United Fruit Company in Jamaica, was a driving force behind renewed agricultural exports. However, Seymour Drescher presented evidence to show that the Jamaican sugar economy flourished before and after the abolition of the slave trade. [105], Under the new charter, the British governor, assisted by the six-member Privy Council and ten-member Executive Council, remained responsible solely to the Crown. In the wake of the English Civil War, the new Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell sought to expand his domain in the New World. [26] According to Robert Renny in his 'An History of Jamaica' (1807): "All the wharves sunk at once, and in the space of two minutes, nine-tenths of the city were covered with water, which was raised to such a height, that it entered the uppermost rooms of the few houses which were left standing. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the number of slaves in Jamaica did not exceed 45,000, but this population rose to about 75,000 in 1730, and passed the 100,000 mark in the 1740s. Jamaica is a Commonwealth nation with very close ties to Britain. Upon landing in Jamaica and other islands, they quickly urged local growers to change their main crops from cotton and tobacco to sugar cane. During the same period, the contribution to GDP of mining increased from less than 1 percent in 1950 to 9.3 percent in 1960 and 12.6 percent in 1970. The West Indies Federal Labour Party was organised by Manley and the Democratic Labour Party by Bustamante. In 1655 the English occupied the island and began a slow process of creating an agricultural economy based on slave labour in support of England's industrial revolution. Spain never recaptured Jamaica, losing the Battle of Ocho Rios in 1657 and the Battle of Rio Nuevo in 1658. In the 1670s and 1680s, in his capacity as an owner of a large slave plantation, Morgan led three campaigns against the Jamaican Maroons of Juan de Serras. Paul Bogle was executed "either the same evening he was tried or the next morning. Morgan achieved some success against the Maroons, who withdrew further into the Blue Mountains, where they were able to stay out of the reach of Morgan and his forces. Suspicious of British intentions, most of the Trelawny Maroons did not surrender until mid-March. Though he was arrested in Kingston, he was transferred by Eyre to Morant Bay, where he could be tried under martial law. About half of these runaways surrendered with the Maroons, and many were executed or re-sold in slavery to Cuba. It was thought by some to be an unsuitable location for the Assembly in proximity to the moral distractions of Kingston, and the next governor rescinded the Act. In the last quarter of the century, however, the Jamaican sugar economy declined as famines, hurricanes, colonial wars, and wars of independence disrupted trade. The economic structure shifted from a dependence on agriculture that in 1950 accounted for 30.8 percent of GDP to an agricultural contribution of 12.9 percent in 1960 and 6.7 percent in 1970. What does contingent mean in real estate? The tops of the highest houses, were visible in the water, and surrounded by the masts of vessels, which had been sunk along with them. Most of the sea trade moved to Kingston. In the 1958 Federal Elections, the DLP won 11 of the 17 seats in Jamaica. In 1780, one of these free people of color, Cubah Cornwallis, became well-known when she nursed British naval hero Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, back to health in Port Royal when he took ill.[55], At the turn of the nineteenth century, the Jamaica Assembly granted Jews voting rights that had previously been denied them. Economic stagnation, discontent with unemployment, low wages, high prices, and poor living conditions caused social unrest in the 1930s. After the abolition of slavery, Jamaica’s plantation owners looked for another source of labor. These were descendants of former slaves of the Spanish. [47], In the 1750s, a runaway slave named Ancoma formed a community made up of escaped slaves in what is now known as Saint Thomas Parish, Jamaica. [68][69], Early historians believed that with the abolition of the slave trade in 1808 and slavery itself in 1834, the island's sugar- and slave-based economy faltered. Tacky's head was later displayed on a pole in Spanish Town until a follower took it down in the middle of the night. The voter turnout with 65.1%. This Apprenticeship was originally scheduled to run until 1840, but the numerous abuses committed by white plantation owners on their black apprentices led to the British government terminating it two years ahead of schedule, and the ex-slaves were finally awarded full freedom. Mary Reckord. It is surrounded by coastal plains, with sandy beaches and many natural bays. Jamaica was claimed for Spain by explorer Christopher Columbus in 1494. Jamaica's white or near-white propertied class continued to hold the dominant position in every respect; the vast majority of the black population remained poor and disenfranchised.[84]. Sedgwicke himself died shortly after his arrival, and General Brayne was sent out to manage the affairs of the colony. Governor Eyre took this opportunity to abolish the Assembly, which was becoming increasingly influenced by free black and mixed-race representatives. How many candles are on a Hanukkah menorah? So 300 passengers on this 777 unit is a good start for us,” said Bartlett. In 1664 the first House of Assembly was called together. The government sold land to people with the regulation that they purchase no more than the amount of the land that they owned in Port Royal, and only land on the sea front. Over time Jews from other Spanish colonies made their way to Jamaica … This resulted in the independence of Jamaica on 6 August 1962, and several other British colonies in the West Indies followed suit in the next decade. One slave from Esher decided to slip away and sound the alarm. In 1663 an expedition sailed from Jamaica to attack the Spanish town of Campeche, in Central America. Another provision of the agreement was that the Maroons would serve to protect the island from invaders. Unable to convert the ex-slaves into a sharecropping tenant class similar to the one established in the post-Civil War South of the United States, planters became increasingly dependent on wage labour and began recruiting workers abroad, primarily from India, China, and Sierra Leone. The elected members of this body were in a permanent minority and without any influence or administrative power. Penn and Venables failed to take the city of Santo Domingo and sailed on to Jamaica. The first European settlers, the Spanish, were primarily interested in extracting precious metals and did not develop or otherwise transform Jamaica. They also attacked white travellers on the roads. Starting in the late seventeenth century, there were periodic skirmishes between English militias and the Windward Maroons, alongside occasional slave revolts. The runaway community thrived in the same parish of St-Thomas-in-the-East, where they often attacked sugar plantations and enabled other slaves to escape. However, the property qualification and a literacy test ensured that only a small percentage of the black Jamaican majority could vote in these elections. Peace was patched up shortly afterwards between the Maroons and the English, but it did not last for long. Barry W. Higman, "Slave Populations of the British Caribbean, 1807–1834". The crowd began pelting the militia with rocks and sticks, and the militia opened fire on the group, killing seven black protesters before retreating. The British also became more interested in Jamaican bananas than in the country's sugar. The troops met with no organised resistance, but regardless they killed blacks indiscriminately, most of whom had not been involved in the riot or rebellion: according to one soldier, "we slaughtered all before us… man or woman or child". Smith, strongly criticised the colonial government in the early 20th century. After losing the referendum, Manley took Jamaica to the polls in April 1962, to secure a mandate for the island's independence. Throughout most of their colonial history, sugar was the main crop of the Caribbean and it made the … [6], In the following years, Spain repeatedly attempted to recapture Jamaica, and in response in 1657 the English Governor of Jamaica invited buccaneers to base themselves at Port Royal on Santiago, to help defend against Spanish attacks. The number of small holdings in fact tripled between 1865 and 1930, thus retaining a large portion of the population as peasantry. In that year, using the JTWTU as a stepping stone, he founded the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union (BITU), which inaugurated Jamaica's workers movement. Earlier historians believed that a major reason for the decline of sugar was the British Parliament's 1807 abolition of the slave trade, under which the transportation of slaves to Jamaica after 1 March 1808 was forbidden. While pursuing Geoghegon, the two policeman were beaten with sticks and stones. In that revolt, Tacky, a slave overseer on the Frontier plantation in Saint Mary Parish, led a group of enslaved Africans in taking over the Frontier and Trinity plantations while killing their enslavers. [35], In the eighteenth century, the population of black slaves in Jamaica increased significantly from one decade to the next, despite the fact that the slave ships coming from the west coast of Africa preferred to first unload at the islands of the Eastern Caribbean. Agricultural development was the centrepiece of restored British rule in Jamaica. Tensions resulted in the October 1865 Morant Bay rebellion led by Paul Bogle. On his release in 1943, Bustamante began building up the JLP. Jamaica is the third most populous English-speaking nation in the Americasand the local dialect of English is known … Concrete actions, however, were not implemented to deal with Jamaica's massive structural problems.[94]. Bustamante, lacking even a high school diploma, was an autocratic, charismatic, and highly adept politician; Manley was an athletic, Oxford-trained lawyer, Rhodes scholar, humanist, and liberal intellectual. Sugar was quickly snapped up by the British, who used it in cakes and to sweeten teas. In 1954, the PNP expelled Richard Hart (Jamaican politician), a Marxist, and three other PNP members for their (alleged) communist views. Campaigners such as Edward Jordon, Robert Osborn (Jamaica) and Richard Hill (Jamaica) were successful in securing equal rights for free people of color at the beginning of the 1830s. Among them was Baptist preacher Paul Bogle. When this island filled up, English-speakers left for other locations, especially for Jamaica after it was taken by the British … Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}17°59′00″N 76°48′00″W / 17.9833°N 76.8000°W / 17.9833; -76.8000, 1692 earthquake and the collapse of Port Royal, Tacky's Revolt and runaway slave communities, West Indies Federation and road to independence, sfn error: no target: CITEREFRodger2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFCoward2002 (, Nuala Zahedieh, "Trade, Plunder, and Economic Development in Early English Jamaica, 1655–89,", Robert William Fogel, "Slavery in the New World". The rebellion was sparked on 7 October, when a black man was put on trial and imprisoned for allegedly trespassing on a long-abandoned plantation. In 1660, when Don Cristobal de Ysasi realised that de Bolas had joined the English, he admitted that the Spanish no longer had a chance of recapturing the island, since de Bolas and his men knew the mountainous interior better than the Spanish and the English. In 1655 the British navy sailed into Kingston, Jamaica, led by a Crypto-Jewish pilot, Campoe Sabbatha. Many of the former slaves settled in peasant or small farm communities in the interior of the island, the "yam belt," where they engaged in subsistence and some cash crop farming. It’s the Queen of England: Queen Elizabeth II.Jamaica gained its independence on August 6, 1962, mostly with peaceful application of pen to paper, but Britain is still the political motherland. Spanish Jamaica had been a colony of Spain for over a hundred years. It met at Spanish Town and passed 45 laws for the government of the colony. Manley was appointed Jamaica's first premier on 14 August 1959.[110]. [93], Because of disturbances in Jamaica and the rest of the region, the British in 1938 appointed the Moyne Commission. Jamaica - Jamaica - History: The following history of Jamaica focuses on events from the time of European contact. [28] This view of the disaster was not confined to Jamaica; in Boston, the Reverend Cotton Mather said in a letter to his uncle: "Behold, an accident speaking to all our English America." On June 12, 1884, a third group of about six hundred and eighty (680) arrived straight from China, all having three year contracts. At first, the Assembly resisted attempts from free coloureds in Jamaica to secure equal rights, and in 1823 the Assembly deported one of their leaders, Louis Celeste Lecesne. In the 1860s, Chinese people arrived from Trinidad and British Guiana. Jamaica is a large island in the Caribbean Sea. On May 11, the Spaniards surrendered. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? Jamaica was an English colony from 1655 (when it was captured by the English from Spain), and a British Colony from 1707 until 1962, when it became independent. In late 1654, English leader Oliver Cromwell launched the Western Design armada against Spain's colonies in the Caribbean. The abolition of the British slave trade in 1807 did not mean that people of African origin no longer came to the island. However, it was in 1655 when the English army, led by the British Admiral Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, finally occupied the island, taking over the last Spanish fort in Jamaica. History of the Jamaica Labour Movement", "Honorary Graduate Profile: Richard Hart", http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/the-agenda/plastic-smiles-and-constipated-glad-handing-cannot-smother-reality-pnp_196158?profile=1096, "History this week:Constitutional Developments in British Guiana and Jamaica between 1890 and 1945 (Part 3)", http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/Norman-Manley-as-premier_17349996, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Colony_of_Jamaica&oldid=996404607, Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas, 1655 establishments in the British Empire, 1962 disestablishments in the British Empire, Articles needing additional references from November 2014, All articles needing additional references, All Wikipedia articles written in Jamaican English, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He was proclaimed Jamaica's first national hero in the 1960s after Edward P.G. On 10 April 1962, of the 45 seats up for contention in the 1962 Jamaican general election, the JLP won 26 seats and the PNP 19. 15. He was convicted of mail fraud in 1923 and had served most of a five-year term in an Atlanta penitentiary when he was deported to Jamaica in 1927. Michael Pawson and David Busseret wrote "...one way or the other nearly all the propertied inhabitants of Port Royal seem to have an interest in privateering. 1692 An earthquake devastates Port Royal. The Baptist War, as it was known, became the largest slave uprising in the British West Indies,[62] lasting 10 days and mobilised as many as 60,000 of Jamaica's 300,000 slave population.[63]. In the late nineteenth century, Crown colony rule was modified; representation and limited self-rule were reintroduced gradually into Jamaica after 1884. The first Irish emigrants to Jamaica arrived more than 200 years previous to my Jamaican friend’s 1850 ancestors. By the late 18th century, Port Royal was largely abandoned.[29]. [95][96] The other three members were Frank Hill, Ken Hill and Arthur Henry, and they were collectively referred to as "the four Hs". In 1673, there were only 57 sugar estates in Jamaica, but by 1739, the number of sugar plantations grew to 430. Today, we take a brief look back on what Jamaica was like from the mid-1600s to 1962, when the country gained independence. More than 300 years of British rule changed the face of the island considerably (having previously been under Spanish rule, which depopulated the indigenous Arawak and Taino communities ) – and 92.1% of Jamaicans are descended from sub-Saharan Africans who were brought over during the Atlantic slave trade. 21–23, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPatterson1970 (. They encompassed dock and sugar plantation workers and other unskilled urban labourers. The rise of the banana economy took place amidst a general exodus of up to 11,000 Jamaicans a year. In 1798, a slave named Cuffee (Jamaica) ran away from a western estate, and established a runaway community which was able to resist attempts by the colonial forces and the Maroons remaining in Jamaica to subdue them. Products like cacao, coffee and pimento all did well, but sugarcane was the king crop. In 1739, the British, led by Governor Edward Trelawny, sued for peace with the Leeward Maroon leader, Cudjoe, described by British planters as a short, almost dwarf-like man who for years fought skilfully and bravely to maintain his people's independence. The voter turnout was 65.2%. In 1840 the Assembly changed the voting qualifications in a way that enabled a significant number of blacks and people of mixed race (browns or mulattos) to vote, but placed property ownership restrictions on them, which excluded the majority of non-white men from voting. Economic stagnation, discontent with unemployment, low wages, high prices, and poor living conditions caused social unrest in the 1930s. Spanish settlements flourished until the 1600s, During the 1650s the Spanish lost Jamaica to … [100] In the 1940s and 1950s. In 1835, Hill was appointed Head of the Department of Stipendiary Magistrates, a position he held for many years. During most of the eighteenth century, a monocrop economy based on sugar production for export flourished. "[27] Before the earthquake, the town consisted of 6,500 inhabitants living in about 2,000 buildings, many constructed of brick and with more than one storey, and all built on loose sand. Bustamante took office as the unofficial leader of government. [60] In October 1824, the colonial militias tried to destroy this community. [24], English map of Jamaica from the 1670s[25], European colonies in the Caribbean during the 18th century, On 7 June 1692, a violent earthquake struck Port Royal. [44][45][46] Five official Maroon towns were established in the aftermath of the treaties - Accompong; Cudjoe's Town (Trelawny Town); Nanny Town, later known as Moore Town, Scott's Hall (Jamaica), and Charles Town, Jamaica, living under their own rulers and a British supervisor known as a superintendent. [39] In September 1728, the British sent more troops to Jamaica, leading to an intensification of the conflict. In 1942, while still incarcerated, he founded a political party to rival the PNP, called the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP). Its close neighbours are Haiti, to the east, and Cuba, to the north. 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